Climate Engineering: Tornadoes & Hurricanes (Update to original 2015 post)
Intro & Disclaimer
After researching propulsion in depth, I realized that my understanding of flows for aerospace applications could be applied to natural systems. Below is an explanation of the still poorly understood phenomena of Tornadoes & Hurricanes consistent within the framework I developed for an advanced radial impeller based propulsion system I invented that utilizes a counter-vortex geometry. The explanation below is subject to change, and both support and criticism from experts in the field are welcome as this is meant to spark a conversation. You can also contact me directly at John@MohyiLabs.com or follow Mohyi Labs on Facebook Here.
If there is one fundamental truth about the universe, it is that the universe is always seeking balance.
Tornadoes & Hurricanes
Gravity is the primary driving force behind Tornadoes and Hurricanes. It acts more strongly on denser particles and pulls them closer to the center of gravity relative to lower density particles. Contrary to popular belief, hot air does not rise; rather it is displaced by the colder/denser air that gravity acts upon more strongly. This is the same phenomenon at work when oil and water separate into distinct layers. Gravity attracts the relatively denser water more than the relatively less dense oil. In the process, the water forces the oil to the top. This process, in conjunction with the rotation of the earth and thermal expansion/contraction driving atmospheric density fluctuations, causes wind. The natural sources of thermal energy are both the sun and the earth itself.
The Vortex begins to form when a denser upper layer, relative to gravitational pull, collapses at its densest point into a less dense layer below, which is usually a center point. As the downward momentum builds, this collapse will first take on a concave geometry causing the pressure/density to drop at the center generating a “vacuum force” as it falls toward the center of gravity. Since every medium is constantly seeking balance or equilibrium, a flow is induced when the balance has tilted by the vacuum formation.
A medium of higher density or concentration relative to its surroundings will always seek a lower state of energy by balancing itself with its environment. A flow in essence is simply an expansion. The expansion, though it expands in all directions simultaneously, will be observed as moving more in the direction of least resistance thus resembling a flow. Though equal amounts of energy are expended in all directions, we observe the net flow move towards the vacuum.
The vacuum generated by the collapse of the upper layer into the lower layer will induce a flow from not only above, but from the sides of the vacuum as well. Because of conservation of angular momentum, as the flow converges toward the center of the vacuum it will rotate faster forming a vortex.
The vortex geometry is essentially an equilibrium between the vacuum created by the outward centrifugal forces that are simultaneously pushed inward by the higher density atmosphere attempting to balance with the void. In other words, the low pressure vacuum resists equilibrium with the higher pressure outside the vortex through the centrifugal force generated by conservation of angular momentum, which essentially pushes away the higher pressure atmosphere.
Since gravity attracts atoms more strongly closer to the surface of the earth, the gradual increase in the atmospheric pressure gives the vortex its cone like geometry.
The practical value of this model its predictive power, which is a precursor to controlling and harnessing this natural phenomenon. In essence, the power to engage in climate engineering. A few approaches are available some more practical than others:
1) Vortex Heating & Direction Control. By decreasing the vacuum via increasing the pressure at the center of the vortex, the vortex equilibrium would expand decreasing the rotation speed resulting from conservation of angular momentum. The most practical method using this approach is to increase the internal pressure via thermal expansion. This may be achieved by focusing a powerful laser at the center of the vortex, or by the use of explosives (not nuclear!).
This method would only decrease the rotational speed and provide only temporary relief unless the thermal transfer is sustained. Therefore, the most practical solution would be to create an array of thousands of satellite mirrors that can redirect the suns energy and focus it on the center of the vortex. Though there may not be enough solar energy to eliminate the hurricane or tornado, it may alternatively be possible to slowly control the direction of the vortex so that it avoids human populations and critical infrastructure. In a best case scenario, these forces of nature can be directed to designated areas where their energy can be harvested for power.
2) Cloud Heating. By decreasing the density of the upper layer via thermal expansion it is possible to stop a tornado or hurricane before it starts or at least decrease its intensity. This may be achieved by focusing our array of thousands of satellite mirrors on the clouds or seeding them with an exothermic chemical. This would decrease the density and reduce the gravitational pull. This method may be counterproductive in the long run though since the thermal energy will eventually disperse and a buildup of additional clouds would just add atmospheric fuel.
3) Cloud Cooling. By increasing the density of the upper layer past its collapsing threshold preemptively, it may be possible to prevent or reduce the size of a tornado or hurricane to tolerable levels. A process known as Cloud Seeding is a common practice in China and is used to increase rainfall. By seeding clouds with either silver iodide or dry ice we can fight hurricanes and tornadoes similar to the way we fight forest fires. It is also technically possible to induce multiple vortexes from the same cloud layer. This would decrease the “fuel” for the primary vortex, but they would likely eventually merge anyway. (Note: Never seed the central region of an active tornado or hurricane with a cooling agent. That would decrease the density and likely increase the rotational speed.)
4) Vortex Tower. By building a tower, similar to a large straw, that reaches into the clouds, it is possible to induce a controlled collapse of the denser atmosphere though the straw like structure. Once the downward flow generates enough momentum, the gravitational potential energy can be converted into electricity similar to a dam.
5) Surface Cooling. Perhaps the cheapest partial solution is to require roads, roofs, and other surfaces in hurricane and tornado prone areas, like Florida, to be reflective. White surface paint or other reflective coatings would reduce surface thermal energy buildup. This technique is already in use in Los Angeles to cool their city, and could be implemented now in other areas to decrease surface temperatures by 9-30 degrees (Watch On Youtube). Though reflective surface coatings would likely not stop a hurricane or tornado, it may decrease its intensity by reducing the difference in atmospheric density between the sky and ground.
Climate Engineering is the sensible response to climate change. Both natural and man made weather fluctuations are a real concern and we have the capability today to respond to these threats.